Direct & Indirect Speech (நேர்க்கூற்றும், அயற்கூற்றும்)


ஒருவர் கூறும் வார்த்தைகளை நாம் இரு வழிகளில் வெளிப்படுத்தலாம் அவை
1) நேர்க்கூற்று (Direct speech) 
ii) அயற்கூற்று (Indirect speech)

i) Direct Speech (நேர்க்கூற்று)

நேர்க்கூற்று என்பது ஒருவர் கூறிய வார்த்தைகளை அப்படியே கூறுவதாகும். அவ்வார்த்தைகள் மேற்கோள்
குறிகளுக்கிடையில் எழுதப்பட்டு இருக்கும்.
When we quote the actual words of a speaker, is called direct speech.

எ.கா: The boy said to me, "My father is a doctor".
இதில் The boy said to me என்பது மேற்கோள் குறிகள் இல்லாத பகுதி. இவற்றை Reporting sentence
அல்லது Non-quotated sentence என்று அழைப்பர்
"My father is a doctor" என்பது மேற்கோள் குறிகள் உள்ள பகுதி, இவற்றை Reported sentence அல்லது
Quotated sentence என்று அழைப்பர்

ii) Indirect Speech (அயற்கூற்று)

அயற்கூற்று என்பது ஒருவர் கூறிய வார்த்தைகளை அப்படியே கூறாமல், கருத்தை மட்டும் எவ்வித
மாற்றமில்லாமல் கூறுவதாகும். இதில் மேற்கோள் குறிகள் இருக்காது.
When we report the substance of what one said without quoting his exact words, it is called indirect
speech. It has no quotation marks.

எ.கா: The boy told me that his father was a doctor.
நேர்க்கூற்று வாக்கியங்களை அயற்கூற்று வாக்கியங்களாக மாற்றுவதற்கு முன் 1 Person, II Person, III
Person ஐ அறிந்து கொள்வது அவசியமாகும்.

 

I Person தன்மை

II Person முன்னிலை

III Person படர்க்கை

I – நான்

You - நீ

 

He - அவன்

She - அவள்

2. We – நாம்

நாங்கள்

You - நீங்கள்

 

They - அவர்கள்

Me – என்னை

You - உன்னை

உனக்கு

 

him - அவனை

    அவனுக்கு

her - அவளை

    அவளுக்கு

us – எங்களை

எங்களுக்கு

you – உங்களை

உங்களுக்கு

them - அவர்களை

அவர்களுக்கு

my – என்னுடைய

your - உன்னுடைய

his – அவனுடைய

her – அவளுடைய

its - அதனுடைய

our – எங்களுடைய

your - உங்களுடைய

their - அவர்களுடைய



வாக்கியங்கள் Statement, Interrogative, Imperative, Exclamatory என நான்கு வகைப்படும். இவ்வாக்கியங்களை அயற்கூற்று வாக்கியங்களாக மாற்ற கீழ்கண்ட குறிப்புகளை பயன்படுத்துக. அயற்கூற்றாக மாற்ற முக்கிய குறிப்புகள்

1. கொடுக்கப்பட்ட வாக்கியத்தில் மேற்கோள் உள்ள பகுதி மேற்கோள் இல்லாத பகுதி எது எனக் காண்க.

2. மேற்கோள் இடாதப்பகுதியில் வரும் சொல்வோன் வினைச்சொல்லை (Reporting verb) வாக்கியத்திற்கு ஏற்றவாறு Said to - ஐ சாதாரண வாக்கியத்திற்கு told ஆகவும், வினாவிற்கு asked ஆகவும், தயவு/கட்டளைக்கு requested/ordered ஆகவும் வியப்பிற்கு exclaimed ஆகவும் மாற்றி எழுதுக.

3. மேற்கோள் குறி ஆரம்பிக்கும் இடத்தில் இணைப்புச் சொல்லை சாதாரண வாக்கியம் - that தயவு/கட்டளை வாக்கியம் - to, not to verb வினா வாக்கியம் - if வியப்பு வாக்கியம் - that என வாக்கியத்திற்கு தகுந்தவாறு மாற்றி எழுதுக

4. மேற்கோள் உள்ள பகுதியில் வரும் 1 person - ஐ (I, we, me, us, my, our) speaker க்கு தகுந்தவாறு மாற்றி எழுது.

5. மேற்கோள் உள்ள பகுதியில் வரும் II Person ஐ (you, your) listener -க்கு தகுந்தவாறு மாற்றி எழுது.

6. மேற்கோள் உள்ள பகுதியில் வரும் வினைச்சொல்லை, சொல்வோன் வினைச்சொல்லிற்கு ஏற்றவாறு மாற்றி எழுதுக.

7. நேர்க்கூற்று பதங்களை, அயற்கூற்று பதங்களாக, மாற்றி எழுது

8. மேற்கோள் குறிகலை நீக்கு

 

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

This

That

These

Those

Here

There

Ago

Before

Thus

So

Now

Then

Today

That day

Tomorrow

The next day

The day after

Yesterday

The previous day

The day before

Last week

The week before

Next week

The week after

Hence

Thence

 

I. Statement
1. She said to him, "I want a pen".
She told him that she wanted a pen.
2. They said to her, "we bought books yesterday".
They told her that they had bought books the previous day.
3. He said," I am not well today".
He said that he was not well that day.
4. The teacher said to the boys. "The sun rises in the east".
The teacher told the boys that the sun rises in the east.
5. Rama said to me, I will meet you tomorrow”.
Rama told me that he should meet me the day after.

Exercise:
1. The boy said, “I wrote a letter last week
2. “I am proud of the honour” said Churchill.
3. They said to him, “we finished our homework”.
4. He said to Mahesh,” I shall take this pen”.
5. I said to her, “ I will give you a camera”.

II. Imperative Sentence
மேற்கோள் உள்ள பகுதியில் வரும் வாக்கியம் முற்று வினைச் சொல்லில் (Finite verb) ஆரம்பித்தால் அது கட்டளை வாக்கியமாகும். இங்கு Conjuction ‘to’ வரும். Please என ஆரம்பித்தால் அது தயவு வாக்கியமாகும். இங்கு said to, ordered (அ) requested என மாறும். மேலும் வாக்கிய தன்மைக்கு ஏற்றவாறு said to ஆனது – asked, advised instructed எனவும் மாறும். Tense மாறாது.

Examples

1. The HM said to the boys, "Study well".
The HM advised the boys to study well.
2. The captain said to the soldiers, "Don't look back".
The captain ordered the soldiers not to look back.
3. The maid said to the manager, "Please grant me two days leave".
The maid requested the manager to grant her two days leave
4. The boy said to Veni, "Please help me".
The boy requested Veni to help him.
5. He said to me, "Come quick".
He asked me to come quick.

Exercise
1. She said to Nalini, "Give me a cup of coffee".
2. The SI said to the policemen, "Have a good relationship with the public".
3. Sheela said to Mala, "Please attend my birthday party".
4. My mother said to me, "Don't play in the hot sun".
5. The HM said to Vasu, "Don't come late hereafter".



III. Interrogative Sentence
Verb - ஐ கொண்டு வினா ஆரம்பித்தால் conjunction – if (or) whether எழுதவும். Question word- ஐ கொண்டு வினா ஆரம்பித்தால் conjunction எதுவும் போட வேண்டாம்.
Verbs: am, is, was, are, were, can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, have, has, had, do, does, did, must, need, ought etc.
Question words: What, when, where, why, who whom, whose, which, how, how long, how far, how much,how many.

Type I. Verb questions:
1. He said to her, "Do you know Typewriting?"
He asked her if she knew Typewriting
2. She said to me, "Does he know car driving?"
She asked me if he knew car driving.
3. Vani said to Veni, "Did you try any medicine?"
Vani asked Veni if she had tried any medicine.
4. Mani said to us, "Are you ready?"
Mani asked us if we were ready
5. They said to him, "Will you help us?"
They asked him if he would help them.

Exercise:

1. Geetha said to Seetha, "Do you sing well?"
2. I said to him, "Does she come daily?"
3. He said to her, "Did you know swimming?"
4. She said to me, "Have you finished your homework?"
5. They said to me, "Can you give me your atlas?"

Type 2 - wh – Questions
1. The boy said to me,"where do you live?"
The boy asked me where I lived.
2. She said to him,"when does your exam begin?".
She asked him when his exam. Began.
3. He said to them, "why did you come late yesterday?".
He asked them why they had come late the previous day.
4. The teacher said to a boy, "where is your book?".
The teacher asked a boy where his book was.
5. They said to him, "what are you doing now?".
They asked him what he was doing then.

Exercise:
1. Rani said to me, "when do I come?".
2. I said to her, "what does he play?".
3. She said to him, "where did you miss your pen?".
4. Ravi said to them, "where are you going now?".

III. Exclamatory Sentence

இவ்வகை வாக்கியத்தில், கீழ்க்கண்ட மாற்றங்கல் வரும்
i) Said to - exclaimed ஆக மாறும்
ii) Conjunction - that வரும்
iii) How, what - போன்ற பதங்களை நீக்கி very எழுதுக.
iv) Subject உம், verb. உம் முதலில் வரும்
v) Alas! Hurrah! Ah! போன்ற பதங்கள் வரும் போது Conjunction க்கு முன், மகிழ்ச்சியான செய்தியாக இருப்பின் with joyfully என்ற பதத்தையும், துயரமான செய்தியாக இருப்பின் with sadly (or) with sorrowfully எனவும் மாற்றி எழுதுக.

Type I

1. The boy cried, "Ah! I have lost my pen".
The boy cried with sadly that he had lost his pen.
2. We said to him, "Hurrah! we won the match".
We exclaimed him with joyfully that we had won the match.
3. The woman said, "Alas! my only child is dead".
The woman exclaimed with sadly that her only child was dead.

Exercise
1. He said to her, "Ah! I failed in the S.S.L.C. exam.
2. She said, "Alas! I lost my father".
3. I said to them, "Hurrah! I missed a train".
4. The girl said to me, "Ah! I passed typewriting".

Type 2
1. Rani said to me, "How tall the tree is!".
Rani exlaimed me that the tree was very tall.
2. Mani said, "How attractive the Rose is!".
Mani exlaimed that the Rose was very attractive.
3. He said to her, "what a find weather today is!".
He exclaimed that that day was a very fine weather.
4. They said me," what a bad handwriting it is!.
They exclaimed me that it was a very bad handwriting.
5. I said to him, "How clever you are!".
I exclaimed him that he was very clever.

Exercise
1. We said to her, "How difficult the questions are!".
2. He said to me, "How ugly your handwriting is!".
3. The visitor said, "How beautiful the Taj mahal is!
4. Prema said to him, "What a dull student you are!
5. They said, "What a big tower it is!".

INDIRECT INTO DIRECT
அயற்சுகூற்றிலிருந்து நேர்கூற்றாக, மாற்ற கீழ்கண்ட மாற்றங்களை கவனத்தில் கொள்
1. Reporting verb told, asked, requested, ordered, exclaimed போன்றவைகளை said to ஆக
மாற்று
2. Conjunction - that, to, not to, if or whether போன்றவற்றை நீக்கு .
3. Pronoun ஐ சொல்பவர் (அ) கேட்பவருக்கு ஏற்றவாறு மாற்றி எழுதுக.
4. அயற்கூற்றில் வரும் சில பதங்களை நேர்கூற்று பதங்களாக மாற்று.
5. மேற்கோள் குறிகளை, Conjunction ஆரம்பிக்கும் இடத்திலும் கடைசியிலும் எழுதுக.

I. Statement
1. He told me that he wanted a dictionary then.
He said to me, "I want a dictionary now".
2. I told her that I was not well that day.
I said to her, "I am not well today".
3. Mala told her mother that she had already revised all her lessons.
Mala said to her mother, "I have already revised all my lessons".
4. Raja says that he is reading books then.
Raja says, "I am reading books now".
5. He told her that he had bought a T.V. the previous month.
He said to her, "I bought a TV last month".

Exercise:
1. He told her that she had saved his life.
2. I told him that I had gone to Delhi previous Monday.
3. They told me that they had watched a T.V. serial the day before.
4. She told them that she should come the following day.
5. Rama said that he was all right then.

II. Imperative Sentence
1. He requested me to help the poor children.
He said to me, "Please help the poor children".
2. The Doctor advised him not to smoke often.
The Doctor said to him, "Don't smoke often".
3. She ordered the maid to post that letter.
She said to the maid, "Post this letter".
4. The Captain ordered the soldiers to shoot atonce.
The Captain said to the soldiers, "Shoot atonce".
5. My mother advised me not to waste my time.
My mother said to me, "Don't waste your time".

Exercise:
1. I requested him to lend me his pen.
2. The S.I. ordered the policeman to catch the thief immediately.
3. She requested her husband to give up his smoking habit.
4. He advised her not to copy.
5. She requested the teacher to grant her leave for two days.

III. Interogative sentence
1. She asked him if he was waiting for her.
She said to him, "Are you waiting for me?".
2. He asked me if I had brought my Umbrella.
He said to me, "Have you brought your Umbrella?".
(or) He said to me, "Did you bring your Umbrella?".
3. I asked him when the bus would come.
I said to him, "When will the bus come?".
4. Govind asked Aravind why he had not returned his book.
Govind said to Aravind, "Why did you not return my book
5. He asked me where I was working then.
He said to me,"where are you working now?".

Exercise:

1. The doctor asked him if he was taking the medicines regularly.
2. I asked my mother if the dinner was ready.
3. She asked the child why he was crying then.
4. He asked when I would come the day after.
5. They asked him why he was playing always.

IV. Exclamatory sentence

1. She exclaimed me that that saree was a very costly.
She said to me, "what a costly this saree is!.
2. They exclaimed him that he was a great fighter.
They said to him, "what a great fighter you are!"
3. He exclaimed her that the Elephant was very big.
He said to her, "How big the Elephant is!".
4. The boy cried with sorrow that he had lost his pen.
The boy cried, "Ah! I have lost my pen!"
5. She exclaimed with joyfully that she had passed shorthand.
She said, "Hurrah! I passed shorthand!"

Exercise:
1. The boy exclaimed with sorrowfully that his toy cart was broken.
2. The leader exclaimed that it was a very big gathering.
3. He exclaimed with joyfully that he had got a lottery prize.
4. She exclaimed him that he worked very hard.
5. The child exclaimed that that building was very tall.

Next Chapter: Degrees of Comparison






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